Free Retirement Classes. What You Need To Know To Retire Successfully

Annuity Terms Glossary

Taxation Of Annuities

Social Security

Social Security

Social Security

Social Security

Questions about long-term care?

When most people think of longterm care for the elderly, they think of nursing homes. But it can involve much more than that.

State Annuity Guaranty

Insurance Regulation & State Guaranty Associations Q&A


Q. How are insurance companies regulated?

Insurance companies are regulated at the state level. Each state has its own set of laws, rules and regulations over the insurance companies that domicile in the state as well as extensive oversight of insurance companies domiciled in another state that also seek licensure in the state.


Q. How do insurance regulators monitor a company’s capital?

State insurance regulators have applied conservative requirements on insurance entities, which have bolstered the life insurers to remain solvent in these difficult economic times. 

First, state insurance regulators apply more conservative accounting requirements by not allowing certain assets (non-admitted) to be included in capital and surplus.

Second, many states have implemented investment limitations to reduce exposure to a single issuer as well as to specific asset classes such as bonds and equities. Additionally, many other risky types of transactions are either limited or prevented.

Third, many states have incorporated derivative restrictions whereby insurers who write derivative contracts must cover these transactions with assets set aside for that risk.

Fourth, state regulators have set minimum capital requirements in Risked Based Capital (RBC). Most life insurance entities have RBC levels of six to seven times their solvency capital.

Finally, in addition to regulatory reviews, insurers must also undergo annual independent audits. State regulators monitor the solvency of insurers at least quarterly or more frequently for at-risk insurers.


Q. In spite of these conservative state regulations, there is no guarantee that a company will not become troubled or insolvent. What else is in place to protect consumers if a company becomes troubled or insolvent?


Regulators can protect policyholders’ interests by requiring insurers to meet certain financial standards and take corrective action (intervention) when necessary. With regard to a troubled insurer, the nature of the appropriate intervention varies depending on the circumstances. The essential objective is to prevent or minimize losses and to provide protection for policyholders.

There are two levels of regulatory actions with respect to troubled companies: 1) actions to prevent a financially troubled insurer from becoming insolvent; and 2) delinquency proceedings against an insurer for the purpose of conserving, rehabilitating, reorganizing or liquidating the insurer. Preventive actions can include restriction on activities, cease and desist orders, supervision and notice of impairments.

If intervention and receivership proceedings do not fully address concerns, state guaranty associations have been established to protect policyholders, annuitants, claimants and beneficiaries against financial losses due to insurer insolvencies. Essentially, in the unlikely event that an insurer in liquidation is unable to pay all its financial obligations, states would access the guaranty association to make up the difference. The guaranty association will pay certain policies up to specific statutory limits in the event of a shortfall from an insurer’s assets.


Q. What is a state guaranty association?

State guaranty associations are offered in every state to protect contract owners against the insolvency of an insurance company that has issued certain insurance contracts, including annuity contracts.

Guaranty associations are non-profit organizations created by statute for the purpose of protecting policyholders from severe losses and delays in claim payment due to insolvency of an insurance carrier.

All states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have one or more guaranty associations, with each association handling certain types of insurance. Typically, most states have two types of guaranty associations: a life and health insurance guaranty association and a property and casualty insurance guaranty association.


Q. Do guaranty associations differ by state, or are they uniform across the country?

Guaranty associations differ by state because each state’s laws set different limits on benefits and coverage.


Q. Are insurance companies required to be members of a state guaranty association?

Yes, all insurance companies licensed to sell life or health insurance in a state must be members of the state’s guaranty association.


Q. How are guaranty associations funded?

Guaranty associations are funded by the insurance industry, not taxpayers. In order to amass the funds needed to protect the state’s policyholders, insurers doing business in that state are assessed a share of the amount required to meet all covered claims.


Q. Are there practical examples of how guarantee associations work?


Q1. If a given state provides $100,000 in protection on a client’s annuity, is that protection capped at $100,000 regardless of how many annuities they own? For example, suppose a client has $1,000,000 in annuities and has ten $100,000 annuity accounts spread out at ten different insurance companies. If two of the insurance companies became insolvent, would the client’s protection be $200,000 or would it be capped at $100,000?

The client’s protection would be capped at $200,000 because the coverage is related to one particular company.

Q2. If the same client had, for some reason, all ten annuity contracts at the same insurance company, would they be limited to $100,000 in coverage?

Yes, however, there may be some flexibility if the policy/contract types are different.

Q3. If the same client actually received $100,000 due to a failure, and then a year later another company that they had a $100,000 account with went out would they be eligible for protection? In other words, is there a reset or a window of time where a client is only eligible for a certain amount of protection?

Yes, the client would eligible for the same protection. There is no time limit for a client to be eligible for a certain amount of protection.


Q. Who oversees the guaranty association?

A board of directors and the state’s insurance regulator generally govern the guaranty associations.


Q. Do state guaranty associations cover all types of insurance?

Individual and group life insurance policies, as well as individual annuities, long-term care and disability income insurance policies are covered by life and health guaranty associations.


Q. On average, what is the coverage provided for annuity contracts?

The coverage provided for annuity contracts varies from state to state, but cash values and annuity benefits generally are protected for at least $100,000.


Q. What type of protection is typically available for variable account contract holders in the event of insolvency?

Variable annuity contracts are typically issued through life insurance company separate accounts, which are insulated from the general creditors of the life insurance company in the event of insolvency. In some states, annuity assets are shielded from a contract owner’s creditors as well.


Q. What requirements have to be met in order for claims to be covered by a guaranty association?

To be covered by a guaranty association, a number of conditions must be met. The claim must:

  • Be unpaid
  • Exist before the insolvency or arise within 30 days after the Order of Liquidation
  • Be on a policy written by an insolvent insurer that was licensed to do business in the state and in a line of business covered by the guaranty association
  • Be brought by a claimant or insured who is a resident of the state
  • Be filed with the guaranty association before the claims cut-off date
  • Not be covered by other insurance


The National Organization of Life and Health Insurance Guaranty Associations (NOLHGA) is a voluntary association made up of the life and health insurance guaranty associations of all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

NOLHGA was founded in 1983 when the state guaranty associations determined that there was a need for a mechanism to help them coordinate their efforts to provide protection to policyholders when a life or health insurance company insolvency affects people in many states.